The former Monaco forward landed awkwardly after a challenge in the first half and attempted to continue but the discomfort remained and he had to be substituted.
France coach Didier Deschamps said the news on Mbappe, the 19-year-old forward who shot to global prominence at the World Cup, was "not necessarily reassuring, but not worrying either".
"He has a sore shoulder, he has fallen badly, he will have to see after with the medical staff".
Neymar believes the injury he sustained is "nothing serious", while - after the game - Brazil boss Tite would not discuss the injury.
The club revealed that Neymar has suffered a groin strain, whilst Mbappe has been diagnosed with a bruised right shoulder.More news: Devin Lima, LFO Singer, Dead at 41
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After the match, Brazilian team doctor, Rodrigo Lasmar, said "it's too early" to give a definitive diagnosis regarding Neymar's injury, given that "it'll need 24 hours to know exactly what's happened".
"He came off complaining of pain", Lasmar said.
Meanwhile Mbappe injured his shoulder as France beat Uruguay.
He was helped from the field, limping, but not requiring a stretcher, to be replaced by Richarlison, who went on to open the scoring for Brazil.
France won thanks to Olivier Giroud's 52nd-minute penalty.
However, Liverpool will travel to the Parc des Princes on Wednesday 28 November, in what will likely be a crucial clash in the Champions League.