A host of Western executives and governments have pulled out of a high-profile Saudi investment summit that started on Tuesday because of the Khashoggi affair.
Erdogan spoke with Prince Mohammed in their first telephone conversation since the killing, a Turkish presidential source said.
It's not clear whether President Donald Trump has broached the topic of the Khashoggi family's travel in his discussions with the Saudi government over Khashoggi's death.
Also on Tuesday, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the US has "identified at least some of the individuals responsible" for Khashoggi's death, "including those in the intelligence services, the royal court, the foreign ministry and other Saudi ministries".
Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said the United States had identified some of the Saudi government and security officials it believed were involved in Mr Khashoggi's murder and would take appropriate actions, including revoking U.S. visas.
Saudi Arabia initially declared Mr Khashoggi had left the consulate unharmed.
Karen Attiah, the global opinion editor at The Post, has been particularly vocal about the situation for Khashoggi's four children, three of whom, she said, have dual U.S. citizenship. Treasury Secretary Mnuchin also announced he would not go but surprised many when he showed up in Riyadh and met with the Crown Prince Monday.
Prince Mohammed accused unidentified critics of trying to use the case to "drive a wedge" between Saudi Arabia and Turkey and pledged that this would not happen as long as his father is king and he is the crown prince. At least five people from the "team of murderers" are from his closest circle, others would not have acted without their permit ...More news: Google to charge smartphone makers for Google Play in Europe
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Erdogan never mentioned Mohammed bin Salman in his speech and did not play an audio of the killing that news accounts have cited.
Saudi Arabia has agreed to a joint investigation into Khashoggi's killing with Turkey, allowing a joint search of its consulate in Istanbul days after the journalist's death.
He was last seen entering the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on October the second. A key aide to the prince has also been fired over his suspected role in the killing.
In the latest sign of unease, Swiss Foreign Minister Ignazio Cassis said the killing pointed clearly to a violation of human rights that required a review of Switzerland's ties to Riyadh. Erdogan asked. "We are seeking answers to this. And we will definitely do that".
He said that Saudi Arabia did not know where the body was.
The Saudi leadership has denied involvement in the murder and instead blamed the chain of command.